MCQ on Genetic Engineering (MCQ 02)

Genetic Engineering MCQ

(1). The first crop plant genome sequenced
    a.       Maize
    b.      Wheat
    c.       Rice
    d.      Barley

(2). Urea and Formamide can:
    a.       Increase Tm of DNA
    b.      Decrease the Tm of DNA
    c.       Helps faster re-annealing of DNA
    d.      Does not effects denaturation of DNA

(3). The chromogenic substrate of X-gal is:
a.       5-chloro-4-bromo-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside
b.      5-bromo-4-chloro-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside
c.       5-chloro-5-bromo-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside
d.      5-bromo-5-chloro-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside

(4). The first transgenic plant to be produced:
a.       Rice
b.      Maize
c.       Cotton
d.      Tobacco

(5). Which of the following molecules is useful as a measure of relatedness beyond species level between organisms:
a.       mRNA
b.      tRNA
c.       rRNA
d.      miRNA

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(6). Explants used for tissue culture can be taken from:
a.       Bud
b.      Root tip
c.       Nodal stem segments
d.      All of these

(7). Indole -3-acetic acid is:
a.       A gibberellin
b.      A cytokinin
c.       An auxin
d.      None of these

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(8). A low auxin:cytokinin ratio leads to:
a.       Shoot formation
b.      Root formation
c.       Fruit formation
d.      All of these

(9). Hairy root cultures are produced by using:
a.       Agrobacterium tumefaciens
b.      Agrobacterium rhizogenes
c.       Agrobacterium vitis
d.      Agrobacterium rubi

(10).  Klenow fragment is derived from:
a.       DNA Pol-I
b.      RNA Pol II
c.       DNA Ligase
d.      Reverse Transcriptase

(11).  Polyhedrin protein is associated with one of the following viruses:
a.       HIV
b.      HSV
c.       RSV
d.      NPV

(12).  The year of launching of Human Genome Project and completion of the rough draft of the sequence was in:
a.       1992 and 2000
b.      1990 and 2000
c.       1989 and 2001
d.      1992 and 2002

(13).  Which of the following is used as a fusogen:
a.       Polyethylene glycol
b.      CaMV
c.       Sendai Virus
d.      Adenovirus

(14).  Restriction endonucleases are usually supplied in:
a.       10% glycerol;
b.      30% glycerol
c.       50% glycerol
d.      80% glycerol

(15).  The main difference between a plasmid and an episome is:
a.       Plasmid is circular episome is linear
b.      Episome is circular, plasmid is linear
c.       Plasmid can be insert into host genome, episomes are not
d.      Episomes can be inserted into the host genome

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Answer Key and Explanations

1.  Ans. (c). Rice

First crop plant whose whole genome sequenced: Oryza glaberrima (African rice) in 2010.

First whole genome sequenced organism: bacteriophage φX174 in 1977.

First Bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae in 1995, using shotgun method.

First eukaryote (also first unicellular eukaryote): Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1996

First multicellular organism (also first animal, first invertebrate): Caenorhabditis elegans in 1998.

First insect: Drosophila melanogaster

First plant: Arabidopsis thaliana

Human genome sequencing completed in 2003

As of today, thousands of whole genome projects were completed: See the list

2. Ans. (b). Decrease the Tm of DNA

Formamide lowers the melting temperatures (Tm) of DNA depending on the (G+C) composition.

3. Ans. (b). 5-bromo-4-chloro-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside

X gal is used in molecular biology technique to detect the presence of β-galactosidase enzyme. Β-galactosidase is a marker gene in molecular biology techniques. This enzyme naturally hydrolyzes the β-galactoside into its monomer units. Β-galactosidase enzyme can also act on X-gal and produce a strong blue coloured derivative and hence make it possible to detect its presence.

4. Ans. (d). Tobacco

The first genetically engineered plant is and antibiotic resistant tobacco developed in 1982. In 1986, the insect resistant tobacco was produced by transgenic technique using the insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis.

First genetically modified crop for sale is FlavrSavr Tomato.

5. Ans. (c). rRNA

6. Ans. (d). All of these

7. Ans. (c). An Auxin

8. Ans. (a). Shoot Formation

In tissue culture, the auxin to cytokinin ratio is very significant in determining the fate of the callus. A high auxin to cytokinin ratio induces root initiation in the callus whereas a low auxin to cytokinin ratio causes shoot development.

9. Ans. (b). Agrobacterium rhizogenes

Hairy root culture is a method in plant genetic engineering for the in vitro production of secondary metabolites using recombination technology. When the roots of a plant are infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, a naturally occurring soil bacterium, they induce the production of opines in the host cells. They contain the root inducing plasmid called Ri plasmid which will induce extensive root production in the plants. The cells of these extensively grown roots are neoplastic with indefinite growth. Thus they can be effectively used in tissue culture techniques for high growth rate compared to the untransformed root cells.

10.  Ans. (a). DNA Pol-I

Klenow fragment: Pol I is extensively used in molecular biology research. The 5’→3’exonuclease activity of this enzyme make it unsuitable for research applications. Klenow fragment is the functional enzyme portion left after the Pol I holoenzyme was treated with protease subtilisin. The subtilisin treatment removes the 5’→3’exonuclease activity of Pol I holoenzyme without altering the other functions so that it can be used in research applications.


Exo-Klenow fragment: It is a DNA Pol I Klenow fragment from which the  3′ → 5’ exonuclease activity is removed by inducing site specific mutation in the genes which code the the Klenow fragment. Exo-Kleno fragment will only have the 5′ → 3′ polymerase activity. Exo-Klenow fragment is used in fluorescent labeling reactions for microarray experiments

11.  Ans. (d). NPV

Polyhedrins are proteins that form the occlusion bodies in Baculovirus. It forms a large protective structure that safeguards the viral particles from external harsh environments. Polyhedrins occurs in NPV (Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus) and GV (Granulovirus).

12.  Ans. (b). 1990 and 2000

The Human Genome Project or HGV is an international research project for determining the complete genome sequence of Human Genome. The project initiated in 1990 and declared to complete in 2003. The financial assistance for the programme came from US Government through NIH (National Institutes of Health). A parallel genome sequencing project by a private company was also started in 1998 by Celera Corporation or Celera Genomics. The rough draft of the Genome was published in 2000. In 2003, the project was officially declared as completed. The human genome project not sequenced the entire genome; it sequenced only the euchromatic region of the human genome, which contributed about 92% of the total genetic material of human.

13.  Ans. (a). Polyethylene glycerol

Fusogen is a chemical agent which facilitates or induces cell-cell fusion in in vitro cytoplasmic hybridization experiments. The cytoplasmic hybrids are called cybrids.

14.  Ans. (c). 50% Glycerol

15.  Ans. (d). Episomes can be inserted into the host genome


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