Biotechnology MCQ 01

Introduction to Biotechnology MCQ

(1). DNA base pairs in the Human Genome are about:
a.       2 X 107
b.      3 X 109
c.       4 X 108
d.      7 X 107

(2). Which of the following is a dual resistance vector?
a.       M13
b.      pUC 18
c.       pUC 19
d.      pBR 322

(3). The name Kary Mullis is associated with:
a.       Gel Retardation Assay
b.      Chain Termination Reaction
c.       RFLP
d.      PCR

(4). Alec Jeffery’s name is associated with:
a.       DNA sequencing
b.      RNA sequencing
c.       DNA fingerprinting
d.      Site-directed mutagenesis

(5). The Cre-Lox system uses one of the following:
a.       DNA kinase
b.      Creatine phosphatase
c.       DNA recombinase
d.      S1-nuclease

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(6). Yeast Two-Hybrid system involves the use of:
a.       Domains of transcription factors
b.      Histone proteins
c.       Two point crossovers
d.      Homologous recombination

(7).      The method of plasmid isolation by alkaline-lysis was published by:
a.       Mandel and Higa
b.      Temin and Baltimore
c.       Tatum and Lederberg
d.      Birnboim and Doly

(8). The antisense gene involved in the production of Flavr Savr tomato is :
a.       Polygalacturonase
b.      Lactamase
c.       Adenosine deaminase
d.      Glutathione transferase

(9). The genetically engineered ‘Golden Rice synthesize large amount of:

a.       Vitamin K
b.      Beta-carotene
c.       Vitamin C
d.      Beta-galactosidase

(10).  His-tagged proteins can be eluted from Ni columns using:
a.       Imidazole
b.      Ammonium hydroxide
c.       6X SSC
d.      0.25 N HCl

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Answer Key with Explanations

1. Ans. (b). 3 X 109

The human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pairs located on 23 chromosomes in its haploid set. These 3 billion base pairs contain about 19000 to 20000 protein coding genes.

2. Ans. (d). pBR 322

pBR322 is a plasmid vector of E.coli extensively used for cloning purpose. It is the first constructed cloning vector, created in 1977 in the laboratory of Herbert Boyer. The vector was named after the researchers who constructed it for the first time. ‘p’ stands for ‘plasmid’, ‘B’ stands for Bolivar and ‘R’ stands for Rodriquez. pBR322 is 4361 base pairs long with two antibiotic resistance genes, hence called dual resistance vector. It contains the resistance gene for ampicillin (AmpR) and tetracycline (TetR). The plasmid also possesses a unique multiple cloning regions with restriction sites for more than 40 restriction enzymes.

M13 is a virus which infects E. coli. It is also used as a vector for DNA recombinant processes.

pUC18 and pUC19 are also cloning vectors.

3.  Ans. (d). PCR

PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction is a molecular biology technique used to amplify the DNA sample. The technique of PCR was developed by Kary Mullis in 1983.

Gel Retardation Assay is better known as Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay or EMSA. EMSA is an electrophoresis technique to detect protein-DNA or protein RNA interactions. 

Chain Termination Reaction: A DNA sequencing method proposed by Frederick Sanger in 1977.

RFLP: RFLP is Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism: A DNA technique to detect the variations in homologues DNA sequences. In RFLP analysis, the variations of the fragments of DNA obtained after treating with a specific endonuclease enzyme is analyzed for its polymorphism.

4. Ans. (c). DNA Fingerprinting

DNA Fingerprinting– also called DNA profiling, is a forensic detection technique used to identify individuals by the characteristics of their DNA profile. The technique of DNA fingerprinting was developed by Alec Jeffreys in 1984.

Learn more: Detailed Method of DNA Fingerprinting with Restriction Enzymes

Site-directed mutagenesis: a molecular method to induce specific sequence changes in a gene or gene product to investigate the importance of that particular gene in the organism.

5. Ans. (c). DNA Recombinase

Cre-Lox recombination: is a site-specific recombination technique to induce large-scale mutations in specific regions of DNA by deletion, insertion or translocations. The Cre-Lox system uses a recombinase enzyme called Cre-recombinase. Cre-recombinase recombine a pair of short target sequence called Lox sequences, hence the name. The Cre enzyme and the LoxP site are originally derived from the bacteriophage P1.


6. Ans. (a). Domains of transcription factors

Yeast Two Hybrid system or Y2H system is a technique used to detect protein-protein interactions and Protein-DNA interactions.

S1 nuclease: S1 nuclease is an endonuclease enzyme derived from Aspergillus oryzae that specifically cleave single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and RNA.

Learn more: Difference between ssDNA and dsDNA.

7. Ans. (d). Birnboim and Doly

Mandel and Higa: discovered the use of calcium chloride for the transformation of bacteria (E.coli) by bacteriophage λ.

Temin and Baltimore: discovered reverse transcriptase enzyme

Tatum and Lederberg: discovered bacterial conjugation

8. Ans. (a). Polygalacturonase

Flavr Savr tomato is the first genetically modified food crop with a license for human consumption. By genetic modification, the ripening process of the tomato was slowed down for preventing the soft rot. The technology used antisense gene against the enzyme polygalacturonase and thereby inactivating it. This enzyme normally degrades the pectin of the cell wall and results in softening of the tissue.

Golden Rice

Golden Rice (Yellow) – image source: cc wikipedia

9. Ans. (b). Beta-carotene

Beta-carotene is the precursor of vitamin A. Golden rice is genetically modified rice which produces beta-carotene in their grains. Golden rice was intended to produce vitamin A rich rice for the use of areas with dietary vitamin A deficiency.

10. Ans. (a). Imidazole

Imidazole is used for the purification of His-tagged (Histidine-tagged) proteins using affinity chromatography. The His-tagged proteins were first run through a Nickel ion column. The Histidine bound to the Nickel ion column and the other impurities will elute out. The bound His-tagged proteins can be then eluted by passing excessive amount of imidazole through the column..


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