Difference between Vertical and Horizontal Resistance

The defense mechanisms employed by plants against diseases are frequently chemical in origin. These resistance mechanisms could be induced or naturally present. The host plant tissues have built-in defense systems before they come into touch with pathogens. There are two different categories of disease resistance in plants namely (1) Vertical Resistance and (2). Horizontal Resistance that are used by plants to resist against pathogenic infections.The present post summarize the Difference between Vertical and Horizontal Resistance in plants.

Ø  Vertical Resistance: A pathogen specific resistance present in plants, controlled by one or few genes, that offer resistance against a particular pathogen.

Ø  Horizontal Resistance: A non-specific form of resistance, involving multiple genes, provides broad-spectrum protection against a range of pathogens.

Learn more: Toxins in Pathogenesis

Difference between Veritical and Horizontal Resistance

CharacteristicsVertical ResistanceHorizontal Resistance
Type of ResistanceSpecificNon-specific
Number of genes involvedSinge or few genesMany genes
Inheritance of resistanceMonogenic or Oligogenic inheritancePolygenic inheritance
Durability of resistanceLong lived resistanceShort-lived resistance
Mechanism of resistanceRecognition of pathogen and its inactivation by pathogen specific mechanismsResistance offered by the activation of innate immune system.
SpecificityNarrow spectrum (specific to a pathogen or few of its strains)Broad spectrum (effective against many paghogens)
Phenotypic ExpressionQualitative phenotypeQuantitative phenotype
Speed of actionSlow actingFast acting
Adaptation (resistance) of the pathogenLess likelyMore likely
Influence of the environmentNot influenced by the environmentCan be influenced by the environment

difference between vertical and horizontal resistance

Similarities between Vertical and Horizontal Resistance

Ø  Both types of resistance mechanisms operate in plants.

Ø  Both are genetically controlled

Ø  Both can be targeted by a plant breeder for the improvement.

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