Why Biodiversity is Rich in Tropics?

Tropical Area

Tropical region is the part of earth surrounding the equator. Exactly it cover the region between tropic of cancer and tropic of capricorn. 

Tropic of Cancer: 23.43º towards Northern Hemisphere
Tropic of Capricorn: 23.43° towards Southern Hemisphere

Tropical regions receive maximum sunlight over the year and the vegetation there are the most productive vegetation on earth. Hence, tropical areas are very rich in biodiversity. Majority of the endemic species of earth belongs to the tropical areas. Similarly, majority of the Mega-biodiversity Centers and Mega-biodiversity hotspots are in the tropical areas. The preset post discusses the reason for the rich biodiversity of tropics.

Ø  In bio-geography, tropical area are divided into:

(1). Paleotropics: Africa, Asia and Australia

(2). Neotropics: Caribbean, Central America and South America

World map indicating tropics and subtropics

Tropical Area Highlighted in Pink (source wikipedia)

Why biodiversity is rich in tropics?

Tropical areas are rich in biodiversity than temperate regions, because:

@.  Warm temperature and high humidity of tropical region are favourable for most of the species on earth

@.  Tropical areas have more stable climate than temperate regions

@.  Tropical communities of plants and animals are older than temperate communities

@.  Thus tropical communities got more time to evolve

@.  Tropical communities have more specializations for adaptions

@.  In tropical areas, there is greater pressure from pests, parasites and disease. This does not allow a single species to predominate

@.  Tropical areas receive more solar energy over the year than temperate region

@.  Thus tropical communities are more productive than temperate communities

@.  Tropical soil is the most fertile soil in the biosphere

@.  This rich soil supports a wider range of species

Because of all these reasons, tropical areas are richer in biodiversity

El bosque inundado amazonico-cosmocaixa-2009 (2)

A Tropical Rainforest (source wikipedia)

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