A candidate can apply for only ONE of the 23 papers (ONLY Biology/Life Science related papers are mentioned here). The syllabus for each of the papers is given separately (GATE Syllabus). Making a choice of the appropriate paper during GATE application is the responsibility of the candidate. Some guidelines in this respect are suggested below. The candidate is expected to appear in a paper appropriate to the discipline of his/her qualifying degree. However, the candidate can choose any paper according to his/her admission plan, keeping in mind the eligibility criteria of the institutions in which he/she wishes to seek admission. For more details regarding the admission criteria in any particular institute, the candidate is advised to refer to the website of that institute.

XL (Life Sciences) papers is of general nature and will comprise of Sections listed in the table.

**General Aptitude Questions**

All the papers will have a few questions that test the General Aptitude (Language and Analytical Skills), apart from the core subject of the paper.

**XL Paper**

A candidate appearing in the XL paper has to answer the following

1. Section H – Chemistry

2. GA – General Aptitude

3. Any two of XL sections I to M (mentioned above in the table)

The choice of two sections from I to M can be made during the examination after viewing the questions. Only two optional sections can be answered at a time. A candidate wishing to change midway of the examination to another optional section must first choose to deselect one of the previously chosen optional sections (I to M).

**Duration and Examination Type**

The GATE examination consists of a single paper of 3-hour duration that contains 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks. The question paper will consist of both multiple choice questions (MCQ) and numerical answer type (NAT) questions. The pattern of question papers is discussed in Section 5.3.

The examination for all the papers will be carried out in an ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT) mode where the candidates will be shown the questions in a random sequence on a computer screen. The candidates are required to either select the answer (for MCQ type) or enter the answer for numerical answer type question using a mouse on a virtual keyboard (keyboard of the computer will be disabled). Each candidate will be provided with a scribble pad for rough work. The scribble pad has to be returned after the examination. At the end of the 3-hour window, the computer will automatically close the screen from further actions.

**Pattern of Question Papers**

In all the papers, there will be a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks, out of which 10 questions carrying a total of 15 marks will be on General Aptitude (GA).

In the papers bearing the codes AE, AG, **BT**, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PE, PI, TF and XE, the Engineering Mathematics will carry around 15% of the total marks, the General Aptitude section will carry 15% of the total marks and the remaining 70% of the total marks is devoted to the subject of the paper.

In the papers bearing the codes AR, CY, **EY**, GG, MA, PH and **XL**, the General Aptitude section will carry 15% of the total marks and the remaining 85% of the total marks is devoted to the subject of the paper.

GATE exam would contain questions of two different types in various papers:

(i) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) carrying 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. These questions are objective in nature, and each will have a choice of four answers, out of which the candidate has to mark the correct answer(s).

(ii) Numerical Answer Questions of 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. For these questions the answer is a real number, to be entered by the candidate using the virtual keypad. No choices will be shown for this type of questions.

**Design of Questions**

The questions in a paper may be designed to test the following abilities:

**(i) Recall:** These are based on facts, principles, formulae or laws of the discipline of the paper. The candidate is expected to be able to obtain the answer either from his/her memory of the subject or at most from a one-line computation.

Example

Q. During machining, maximum heat is produced

(A) in flank face

(B) in rake face

(C) in shear zone

(D) due to friction between chip and tool

**(ii) Comprehension:** These questions will test the candidate’s understanding of the basics of his/her field, by requiring him/her to draw simple conclusions from fundamental ideas.

Example

Q. A DC motor requires a starter in order to

(A) develop a starting torque

(B) compensate for auxiliary field ampere turns

(C) limit armature current at starting

(D) provide regenerative braking

**(iii) Application:** In these questions, the candidate is expected to apply his/her knowledge either through computation or by logical reasoning.

Example

Q. The sequent depth ratio of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 16.48. The Froude number at the beginning of the jump is:

(A) 5.0 (B) 8.0 (C) 10.0 (D) 12.0

Examples of each of this design are given in the types of questions above.

The questions based on the above logics may be a mix of single standalone statement/phrase/data type questions, combination of option codes type questions or match items type questions.

**(iv) Analysis and Synthesis:** In these questions, the candidate ispresented withdata, diagrams, images etc. that require analysis before a question can be answered. A Synthesisquestion might require the candidate to compare two or more pieces of information. Questions in this categorycould, for example, involve candidates in recognizing unstated assumptions, or separating useful information from irrelevant information.

**Marking Scheme**

For 1-mark multiple-choice questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2-mark multiple-choice questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. There is NO negative marking for numerical answer type questions.

*Consult syllabus before proceeding*

**General Aptitude (GA) Questions**

In all papers, GA questions carry a total of 15 marks. The GA section includes 5 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 5 marks) and 5 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 10 marks).

**Question Papers other than GG, XE and XL**

These papers would contain 25 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 25 marks) and 30 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 60 marks). The question paper will consist of questions of multiple choice and numerical answer type. For numerical answer questions, choices will not be given. Candidates have to enter the answer (which will be a real number, signed or unsigned, e.g., 25.06, -25.06, 25, -25 etc.) using a virtual keypad. An appropriate range will be considered while evaluating the numerical answer type questions so that the candidate is not penalized due to the usual round-off errors.

**XL Paper (Life Sciences)**

In XL paper, Chemistry section (Section H) is compulsory. This section contains 15 questions carrying a total of 25 marks: 5 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 5 marks) and 10 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 20 marks). Some questions may be of numerical answer type.

Each of the other sections of the XL paper (Sections I through M) contains 20 questions carrying a total of 30 marks: 10 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 10 marks) and 10 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 20 marks). Some questions may be of numerical answer type.

**Note on Negative Marking for Wrong Answers**

For a wrong answer chosen for the multiple choice questions (MCQs), there would be negative marking. For 1-mark multiple choice questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2-mark multiple choice questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. However, there is NO negative marking for a wrong answer in numerical answer type questions.

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